نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استاد دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر واکاوی نقش عوامل مکانی- فضایی در مهاجرت فصلی نیروی کار روستایی به شهر می باشد. بدین منظور از عوامل مکانی- فضایی، سه موئلفه میانگین زمین خانوار روستایی، فاصله روستا از شهر و ارتفاع روستاها استفاده شده و میزان مهاجرت های فصلی از روستاها بر اساس این سه موءلفه محاسبه گردیده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش سرپرستان خانوارهای روستایی شهرستان سروآباد تشکیل می دهد. از 65 روستای شهرستان 13 روستا (20 درصد) به صورت تصادفی برای نمونه گیری انتخاب و از جمعیت 11700 خانواری روستاهای شهرستان، براساس فرمول منطقی کوکران 323 سرپرست خانوار انتخاب شدند. سپس با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون رابطه میزان مهاجرت با عوامل مکانی- فضایی در نظر گرفته شده یعنی فاصله، ارتفاع و میانگین زمین، بررسی شده است. یافته های توصیفی تحقیق نشان داد که بیشترین تعداد مهاجران فصلی تا 4 ماه در مهاجرت می مانند(54 درصد)، بیشترین آمار مربوط به میانگین تعداد مهاجران فصلی از هر خانوار، مربوط به خانوار های دارای تک مهاجر است(50درصد). فصل انجام مهاجرت برای بیشتر مهاجران فصل بهار می باشد(60 درصد) و فصل برگشت نیز فصل بهار(60درصد) پاییز(39.3) می باشد. شغل مهاجران فصلی برای 57 درصد جامعه نمونه، کارگر ساختمانی است. بر اساس آزمون پیرسون، دو عامل میانگین زمین و فاصله از شهر، با مهاجرت فصلی، دارای همبستگی زیادی بوده و عامل ارتفاع فاقد رابطه است. بر این اساس می توان نتیجه گرفت عوامل مکانی- فضایی در به وجود آمدن مهاجرت فصلی نیروی کار روستایی در شهرستان سروآباد نقش دارند.

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