مهاجرت بازگشتی و پیامدهای آن بر سکونتگاههای روستایی مطالعه موردی: بخش باروق شهرستان میاندوآب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران، ایران

2 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه پیام نور، میاندوآب، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه پیام نور اورمیه، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تبریز، ایران

5 استادیار جمعیت شناسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، اهر، ایران

چکیده

مهاجرت بازگشتی فرایند مهاجرت از روستا به شهر و اقامت نسبتاً طولانی در آنجا و سپس بازگشت به موطن روستایی می­باشد. عوامل مختلفی در این فرایند تأثیر داشته و مهاجران بازگشته در تحولات روستا نقش ایفا کرده­اند. تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی عوامل مهاجرت بازگشتی و پیامدهای آن بر نواحی روستایی انجام یافت. روش تحقیق از لحاظ هدف کاربردی و از لحاظ روش شناسی توصیفی- تحلیلی و شالوده مطالعات آن بر پیمایش میدانی و ابزار گردآوری داده­ها پرسشنامه و مصاحبه است. قلمرو مکانی تحقیق، بخش باروق شهرستان میاندوآب واقع در جنوب­شرقی آذربایجان­غربی بود. جامعه آماری تحقیق خانوارهای مهاجران بازگشته به این بخش طی دهه اخیر (1383- 1392) می­باشد که با سرشماری از 96 خانوار بازگشته به موطن روستایی به بررسی متغیرهای تحقیق پرداخته شد. روایی پرسشنامه از نوع صوری و پایایی آن با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ 83/0 بدست آمد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده­ها به روش کمّی (شامل آمار توصیفی و آمار استنباطی (تحلیل عاملی به شیوه تحلیل مولفه­ای، آزمون تی تک نمونه، کندال و تحلیل مسیر))  صورت پذیرفت. نتایج تحلیل عاملی نشان داد عوامل مختلفی در بازگشت مهاجران نقش داشته است که از بین آنها عامل­های اقتصادی و عمرانی - اجتماعی به ترتیب با مقدار ویژه 49/2 و 31/2 بیشترین تأثیر را در بین عامل­های بارگذاری شده به خود اختصاص داده­اند و عامل فرهنگی- قومی کمترین تأثیر را در بین عامل­ها داشته است. نتایج تحلیل مسیر اثرات بازگشت مهاجران در روستاها، نشان داد مهاجران بازگشته بیشترین تأثیر را در شاخص­های عمرانی – کالبدی و کمترین پیامد را در شاخص اجتماعی داشته­اند.

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